FRAMING OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

framing of indian constitution

GROUP IV

Polity Handout – 1

 

FRAMING OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

 

Introduction:

In modern world, Constitution of a country is framed by a representative body called the Constituent Assembly comprising of members elected (directly or indirectly) or nominated by the people of that country. Thus the sole purpose of a Constituent Assembly is to draft the Constitution of the country. The Constitution of India was also drafted by a Constituent Assembly the demand for which was implicit in the national freedom struggle from around 1918.

 

Timeline:-

The timeline for framing of the Constitution of India:

1922: A joint meeting of members of both houses of the Central Legislature, initiated by Mrs. Annie Besant, decided to call for a convention for the framing of a Constitution.

1925: Commonwealth of India Bill drafted by Indians in the Central Legislature and modified by members of all parties in India, was introduced in the British Parliament. Though the bill was not passed by the British Parliament, it is considered as a major effort by Indians for a Constitution.

1928: A committee headed by Motilal Nehru was constituted to give effect to a resolution to frame a Constitution made by the Congress in 1927. The report famously known as the Motilal Nehru Report, is seen as the first major effort of India to frame a full-fledged Constitution.

1930-32: Three round table conferences were held between the National leaders of India and the British Government to discuss Constitutional Reforms in India, these discussions reflected in the Government of India Act 1935.

1934: For the first time, the establishment of a Constituent Assembly was proposed by M. N. Roy, a prominent trade union leader.

1937-39: On several occasions, the working committee of Congress reiterated the demand for the Constituent Assembly.

1940: The British Government accepted the demand for a Constituent Assembly in what is called August offer. To move this forward, the British made three attempts in the form of the Cripps Mission, the Wavell Plan and the Cabinet Mission.

1942:  Cripps mission was appointed, however it failed as it could not meet the demands of the Congress and Muslim League on the formation of a Constituent Assembly.

1945: Simla Conference was conveyed to discuss the Wavell Plan. The plan was also rejected by all the major parties in India.

1946: Cabinet mission arrived in India on 24th March and published its recommendations on 16th May. Constituent Assembly was formed on the recommendations of the Cabinet Mission.  The three members of the mission were – Sir Stafford Cripps, Sir Pathick Lawrence and A.B. Alexander.

Jul-Aug 1946: Elections were held for the constituent assembly. The members of the Constituent Assembly were indirectly elected by the elected representatives from British India.  Members from Princely States were nominated. Therefore the Constituent Assembly was a partly elected and partly nominated body.

November 1946:  The Constituent Assembly was formed.

9th December 1946: Constituent Assembly met for the first time Dr. Sachidananda Sinha, the oldest member of the constituent assembly was elected as the Protem Speaker.

11th December 1946:  Dr. Rajendra Prasad and H.C. Mukharjee were elected as the President and Vice-President respectively of the Constituent Assembly. Sir B.N. Rau was appointed as the constitutional advisor to the assembly.

13th December 1946: Nehru moved the objectives resolution in the constituent Assembly The objectives resolution was the broad framework or plan for drafting the Constitution.  It defined the territory of India its composition and constitution; the aims and objectives of the Constituent Assembly in framing the constitution, the source of power and the safeguards for different sections of the society.

22nd January 1947: The Objectives Resolution was unanimously adopted by the constituent assembly.

15th August 1947:  India Independence Act 1947 made the following three changes to the position of the Constituent Assembly.

  1. i) The assembly became a fully sovereign body which was independent to frame any constitution it pleased.
  2. ii) The assembly also functioned as the legislative body of India ie it was performing two separate functions.
  3. Making the constitution of the country
  4. Enacting ordinary laws for the country

The constituent assembly met as a legislature for the first time on 17th November 1947 and elected GV Mavlankar as the speaker.  The Constituent Assembly thus became the first Parliament of free India. Whenever the constituent Assembly met to frame the constitution it was headed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad and when it met as a legislative body it was headed by G.V. Mavlankar.

iii) The Muslim league members withdrew from the constituent assembly as a consequence of which the strength of the constituent assembly decreased from 389 to 299.

4th November 1948:  First reading of the draft constitution was done and general discussion was conducted for 5 days.

15th November 1948 to 17th October 1949: Second reading, clause by clause constitution started on 15th November 1948 and ended on 17th October 1949.  In all 7635 amendments were proposed out of which only 2473 were accepted.

24th Nov 1949:  Third reading started

26th November 1949:  The draft constitution was declared passed and signed by the members of Constituent Assembly out of total 299 members only 284 members singed  the constitution.

26th January 1950:  Constitution of India came into force on this day is historically significant because, in Dec 1929 the annual session of congress held in Lahore, Nehru declared Jan 26th 1930 as the Purna Swaraj Day.

 

Composition of Constituent Assembly:-

The Constituent Assembly was a partly elected, partly nominated body. While the representatives from the Provinces and Presidencies of British India were indirectly elected by the method of proportional representation with single transferrable vote, the representatives of the princely states were nominated. The exact representation from British India and Princely States is given below-

As a result of the partition under the Mountbatten Plan of 3 June, 1947, a separate Constituent Assembly was set up for Pakistan and representatives of some Provinces ceased to be members of the Assembly, as a consequence of which the membership of the Assembly was reduced to 299.

 

Committees of The Constituent Assembly:-

In order to accomplish the enormous task of framing a Constitution of India, the Constituent Assembly appointed different committees to deal with the different aspects related to the framing of the Constitution. The most important committees of the Constituent Assembly and their Chairpersons is listed below:

IMPORTANT COMMITTEES OF THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY AND THEIR CHAIRPERSONS
Name of the Committee   Chairman
Committee on the Rules of Procedure Rajendra Prasad
Steering Committee Rajendra Prasad
Finance and Staff Committee Rajendra Prasad
Credential Committee AlladiKrishnaswamiAyyar
House Committee B. PattabhiSitaramayya
Order of Business Committee K.M. Munsi
Ad hoc Committee on the National Flag Rajendra Prasad
Committee on the Functions of the Constituent Assembly G.V. Mavalankar
States Committee Jawaharlal Nehru
Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minoritiesand Tribal and Excluded Areas Vallabhbhai Patel
Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee J.B. Kripalani
North-East Frontier Tribal Areas and Assam Exluded& Partially Excluded Areas Sub-Committee Gopinath Bardoloi
Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas (Other than those in Assam) Sub-Committee A.V. Thakkar
Union Powers Committee Jawaharlal Nehru
Union Constitution Committee Jawaharlal Nehru
Drafting Committee B.R. Ambedkar

 

Drafting Committee:-

In the making of the Constitution, a very valuable role was played by the Drafting Committee. The seven member Committee was responsible for framing the draft constitution of India and was constituted on 29th August, 1947 with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as its chairman. The members of this committee are

  • Dr. Ambedkar (Chairman)
  • B.L.Mitter (Mitter resigned due to ill health and N.Madhab Rao was appointed in his place)
  • N.GopalswamiAyyanagar
  • AlladiKrishnaswamiAyyar
  • K.M. Munshi
  • Saiyid MohdSaadullah
  • D.P. Khaitan (after the death of Mr. D.P. Khaitan, T.T. Krishnamachari was made its member)

The Drafting Committee submitted its report (draft) to the Constituent Assembly on 21st February, 1948 and the Constituent Assembly held debates on it. On the basis of these discussions, a new draft was prepared by the Drafting Committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4th November, 1948. In all, the Drafting Committee met for 114 days for framing the Draft Constitution.

Dr B. R. Ambedkar is known as the father of the Constitution of India for his contribution towards the drafting of the Constitution in the capacity of the Chairman of the Drafting Committee. He played an important role in evolving a Constitution that was both balanced as well as accommodative of the interests of all sections of the society.

PREAMBLE

 

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;

and to promote among them all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949,DO HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

 

Origin of Words

  1. Sovereignty – derived from the Latin term superanusand the French term souverainetéwhich means equal to supreme power
  2. Socialism – derived from Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share
  3. Secular – derived from Latin saecularismeaning “worldly” or “temporal”
  4. Democracy – derived from Greek wordsdēmos(people) and kratos(rule)
  5. Republic – derived fromthe Latin word res publica meaning public thing
  6. Justice – derived from the Latin word jus which means just or right
  7. Liberty – derived from Latin word līber, equivalent to freedom
  8. Fraternity – derived from Latin word fratermeaning brother

 

Significance of the Preamble

The importance of the Preamble of the Constitution of India, perceived by eminent people is given below.

  • Dyer C J  – Key to open the minds of the makers of the Constitution
  • K.M. Munshi – The horoscope of over Sovereign Democratic Republic
  • Pandit Thakur Das Bhargava – The preamble is the most precious part of the constitution. It is the soul of the constitution. It is a key to the constitution.
  • Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer – The preamble to over Constitution expresses what we had thought or dreamt so long.
  • Sir Ernest Parker – Key note to the Constitution.
  • Nehru – Preamble is a firm resolution and a solid promise.
  • Phalkewala – Identity card of the Constitution.
  • Dr. B. R. Ambedkar – Preamble is the heart of the Constitution

 

SOURCES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

SOURCE PROVISIONS
Government of India Act 1935 ü  Federal Scheme

ü  Office of the Governor

ü  Public Service Commissions

ü  Emergency Provisions

ü  Administrative Details

British Constitution ü  Parliamentary Form of Government

ü  Rule of Law

ü  Legislative Procedure

ü  Single Citizenship

ü  Cabinet System

ü  Writ Jurisdiction

ü  Parliamentary Privileges

ü  Bicameralism

American Constitution ü  Fundamental Rights

ü  Independent Judiciary

ü  Judicial Review

ü  Office of Vice President

ü  Procedure of Impeachment of the President

ü  Procedure of removal of judges of High Courts and Supreme Court

Russian Constitution ü  Fundamental Duties

ü  Ideals of justice – social, economic and political – in the Preamble

Constitution of Ireland ü  Directive Principles of State Policy

ü  Nomination of members to Rajya Sabha

ü  Method of election of President

Canadian Constitution ü  Federation with a strong centre

ü  Vesting of Residuary powers in the Centre

ü  The practice of appointment of governor of a state by the Centre

ü  Advisory jurisdiction of Supreme Court

Australian Constitution ü  Concurrent list

ü  Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse amongst the states

ü  Joint sitting of both houses of Parliament

Weimer Constitution of Germany ü  Suspension of Fundamental Rights during emergency
French Constitution ü  Republic

ü  The ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity in the Preamble

South African Constitution ü  Procedure of amendment to the Constitution

ü  Election of members to Rajya Sabha

Japanese Constitution ü  The term “Procedure established by law” in Article 21

 

PARTS AND SCHEDULES

The following table gives an overview of the parts and schedules in the Constitution as on date

PARTS IN THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
PART DECSRIPTION ARTICLES
I Union and its territory 1 to 4
II Citizenship 5 to 11
III Fundamental Rights 12 to 35
IV Directive Principles of State Policy 36 to 51
IV A Fundamental Duties 51 A
V Union Government 52 to 151
VI State Government 152 to 237
VII Repealed 238
VIII The Union Territories 239 to 242
IX The Panchayats 243 to 243 O
IX A The Municipalities 243 P to 243 ZG
IX B The Co-operative Societies 243 ZH to 243 ZT
X The Scheduled and Tribal Areas 244 and 244 A
XI Relation between the Centre and the States 245 to 263
XII Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits 264 to 300 A
XIII Trade, Commerce and intercourse within the territory of India 301 to 307
XIV Services Under the Centre and States (PSCs) 308 to 323
XIV A Tribunals 323 A and 323 B
XV Elections 324 to 329
XVI Special Provisions relating to certain classes 330 to 342
XVII Official Language 343 to 351
XVIII Emergency Provisions 352 to 360
XIX Miscellaneous 361 to 367
XX Amendment to the Constitution 368
XXI Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions 369 to 392
XXII Short title, commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals 393 to 395

 

 

SCHEDULES OF THE CONSITUTION
SCHEDULE DESCRIPTION
First Schedule List of the names of the 29 States and 7 Union Territories in India
Second Schedule Information related to Salaries and other allowances of President of India; Governors of the States; Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies; Chairman and Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha and State Legislative Councils; Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts; and CAG
Third Schedule Forms of Oaths and Affirmations of Ministers of Union and States (Oath of Office and Oath of Secrecy); Candidates for election as Member of Parliament and as Members of State Legislature; Members of Parliament and Members of State Legislature; Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts; CAG;
Fourth Schedule Allocation of seats to states in Rajya Sabha
Fifth Schedule Provisions related to the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes
Sixth Schedule Provisions related to the administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram
Seventh Schedule The three lists related to division of powers between the centre and the states – Union List, State List and Concurrent List
Eighth Schedule The list of languages recognised by the Constitution
Ninth Schedule Laws related to land reforms
Tenth Schedule Provisions related to Anti-defection Act
Eleventh Schedule List of functions that can be given to the Panchayats
Twelfth Schedule List of functions that can be given to the Muncipalities

 

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

No. Amendments Enforced since Objectives
1 Amend articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 and 376.
Insert articles 31A and 31B.
Insert schedule 9.
18 June 1951 To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws and to place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights. These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law
2 Amend article 81(1)(b). 1 May 1953 Removed the upper population limit for a parliamentary constituency by amending Article 81(1)(b).
3 Amend schedule 7. 22 February 1955 Re-enacted entry 33 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule with relation to include trade and commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of 4 classes of essential commodities, viz., foodstuffs, including edible oil seeds and oils; cattle fodder, including oilcakes and other concentrates; raw cotton whether ginned or unginned, and cotton seeds; and raw jute.
4 Amend articles 31, 35 band 305.
Amend schedule 9.
27 April 1955 Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution
5 Amend article 3. 24 December 1955 Empowered the President to prescribe a time limit for a State Legislature to convey its views on proposed Central laws relating to the formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. Also permitted the President to extend the prescribed limit, and prohibited any such bill from being introduced in Parliament until after the expiry of the prescribed or extended period.
6 Amend articles 269 and 286.
Amend schedule 7.
11 September 1956 Amend the Union and State Lists with respect to raising of taxes
7 Amend articles 1, 3, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231 and 232.
Insert articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371, 372A and 378A.
Amend part 8.
Amend schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7.
1 November 1956 Reorganization of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and introduction of Union Territories
8 Amend article 334. 5 January 1960 Extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1970
9 Amend schedule 1. 28 December 1960 Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc.
10 Amend article 240.
Amend schedule 1.
11 August 1961 Incorporation of Dadra, Nagar and Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal
11 Amend articles 66 and 71. 19 December 1961 Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college
12 Amend article 240.
Amend schedule 1.
20 December 1961 Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal
13 Amend article 170.
Insert new article 371A.
1 December 1963 Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A
14 Amend articles 81 and 240.
Insert article 239A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.
28 December 1962 Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India and creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa
15 Amend articles 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 226, 297, 311 and 316.
Insert article 224A.
Amend schedule 7.
5 October 1963 Raise retirement age of High court judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments for rationalizing interpretation of rules regarding judges etc.
16 Amend articles 19, 84 and 173.
Amend schedule 3.
5 October 1963 Make it obligatory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the various obligatory templates
17 Amend article 31A.
Amend schedule 9.
20 June 1964 To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution
18 Amend article 3. 27 August 1966 Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganization of Union Territories
19 Amend article 324. 11 December 1966 Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts
20 Insert article 233A. 22 December 1966 Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges and to validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges barring a few who were not eligible for appointment under article 233. Amendment needed to overcome the effect of judgment invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh
21 Amend schedule 8. 10 April 1967 Include Sindhi as an Official Language
22 Amend article 275.
Insert articles 244A and 371B.
25 September 1969 Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam
23 Amend articles 330, 332, 333 and 334. 23 January 1970 Discontinued reservation of seats for the Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, both in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly and stipulated that not more than one Anglo-Indian could be nominated by the Governor to any State Legislative Assembly. Extend reservation for SC/ST and Anglo Indian members in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for another ten years, i.e. up to 1980.
24 Amend articles 13 and 368. 5 November 1971 Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through amendments to the constitution
25 Amend article 31.
Insert article 31C.
20 April 1972 Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private property
26 Amend article 366.
Insert article 363A.
Remove articles 291 and 362.
28 December 1971 Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic
27 Amend articles 239A and 240.
Insert articles 239B and 371C.
15 February 1972 Reorganization of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a legislature and council of ministers
28 Insert article 312A.
Remove article 314.
29 August 1972 Rationalize Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to Independence and post-independence
29 Amend schedule 9. 9 June 1972 Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
30 Amend article 133. 27 February 1973 Change the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case of Civil Suits from value criteria to one involving substantial question of law
31 Amend articles 81, 330 and 332. 17 October 1973 Increase size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats. Increased seats going to the new states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise
32 Amend article 371.
Insert articles 371D and 371E.
Amend schedule 7.
1 July 1974 Protection of regional rights in Telangana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh
33 Amend articles 101 and 190. 19 May 1974 Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures and the procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker
34 Amend schedule 9. 7 September 1974 Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
35 Amend articles 80 and 81.
Insert article 2A.
Insert schedule 10.
1 March 1975 Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India
36 Amend articles 80 and 81.
Insert article 371F.
Remove article 2A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.
Remove schedule 10.
26 April 1975 Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union
37 Amend articles 239A and 240. 3 May 1975 Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly
38 Amend articles 123, 213, 239B, 352, 356, 359 and 360. 1 August 1975 Enhances the powers of President and Governors to pass ordinances
39 Amend articles 71 and 329.
Insert article 329A.
Amend schedule 9.
10 August 1975 Amendment designed to negate the judgment of Allahabad High Court invalidating Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s election to parliament. Amendment placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister
40 Amend article 297.
Amend schedule 9.
27 May 1976 Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of India

Place land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution

41 Amend article 316. 7 September 1976 Raise Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of Joint Public Service Commissions and State Public Service Commissions from sixty to sixty two.
42 Amend articles 31, 31C, 39, 55, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83, 100, 102, 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, 170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 311, 312, 330, 352, 353, 356, 357, 358, 359, 366, 368 and 371F.
Insert articles 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, 131A, 139A, 144A, 226A, 228A and 257A.
Insert parts 4A and 14A.
Amend schedule 7.
1 April 1977 Amendment passed during internal emergency by Indira Gandhi. Provides for curtailment of fundamental rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the basic structure of the constitution by making India a “Socialist Secular” Republic
43 Amend articles 145, 226, 228 and 366.
Remove articles 31D, 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A and 228A.
13 April 1978 Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Repeals some of the more ‘Anti-Freedom’ amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 42
44 Amend articles 19, 22, 30, 31A, 31C, 38, 71, 74, 77, 83, 103, 105, 123, 132, 133, 134, 139A, 150, 166, 172, 192, 194, 213, 217, 225, 226, 227, 239B, 329, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360 and 371F.
Insert articles 134A and 361A.
Remove articles 31, 257A and 329A.
Amend part 12
Amend schedule 9.
6 September 1978 Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Provides for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and legislative authority. Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 42
45 Amend article 334. 25 January 1980 Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1990
46 Amend articles 269, 286 and 366.
Amend schedule 7.
2 February 1983 Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales Tax
47 Amend schedule 9. 26 August 1984 Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
48 Amend article 356. 1 April 1985 Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to two years in the state of Punjab
49 Amend article 244.
Amend schedules 5 and 6.
11 September 1984 Recognize Tripura as a Tribal State and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council
50 Amend article 33. 11 September 1984 Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and communication infrastructure
51 Amend articles 330 and 332. 16 June 1986 Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies
52 Amend articles 101, 102, 190 and 191.
Insert schedule 10.
1 March 1985 Anti-Defection Law – Provide disqualification of members from parliament and assembly in case of defection from one party to other
53 Insert article 371G. 20 February 1987 Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.
54 Amend articles 125 and 221.
Amend schedule 2.
1 April 1986 Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges and to provide for determining future increases without the need for constitutional amendment
55 Insert article 371H. 20 February 1987 Special powers to Governor consequent to formation of state of Arunachal Pradesh
56 Insert article 371I. 30 May 1987 Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa
57 Amend article 332. 21 September 1987 Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies
58 Insert article 394A.
Amend part 22.
9 December 1987 Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of constitution as on date and provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments
59 Amend article 356.
Insert article 359A.
30 March 1988 Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to three years in the state of Punjab, Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab
60 Amend article 276. 20 December 1988 Profession Tax increased from a minimum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/-
61 Amend article 326. 28 March 1989 Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18
62 Amend article 334. 20 December 1989 Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2000
63 Amend article 356.
Remove article 359A.
6 January 1990 Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per amendment 59 repealed
64 Amend article 356. 16 April 1990 Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to three years and six months in the state of Punjab
65 Amend article 338. 12 March 1990 National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its statutory powers specified in The Constitution.
66 Amend schedule 9. 7 June 1990 Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
67 Amend article 356. 4 October 1990 Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to four years in the state of Punjab
68 Amend article 356. 12 March 1991 Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to five years in the state of Punjab
69 Insert articles 239AA and 239AB. 1 February 1992 To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for Federal National Capital of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory
70 Amend articles 54 and 239AA. 21 December 1991 Include National Capital of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in electoral college for Presidential Election
71 Amend schedule 8. 31 August 1992 Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as Official Languages
72 Amend article 332. 5 December 1992 Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly
73 Insert part 9. 24 April 1992 Statutory provisions for Panchyat Raj as third level of administration in villages
74 Insert part 9A. 1 June 1992 Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third level of administration in urban areas such as towns and cities
75 Amend article 323B. 15 May 1994 Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals
76 Amend schedule 9. 31 August 1994 Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution
77 Amend article 16. 17 June 1995 A technical amendment to protect reservation to SC/ST Employees in promotions
78 Amend schedule 9. 30 August 1995 Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
79 Amend article 334. 25 January 2000 Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010
80 Amend articles 269 and 270.
Remove article 272.
9 June 2000 Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre
81 Amend article 16. 9 June 2000 Protect SC / ST reservation in filling backlog of vacancies
82 Amend article 335. 8 September 2000 Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for SC / ST candidates
83 Amend article 243M. 8 September 2000 Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions
84 Amend articles 55, 81, 82, 170, 330 and 332. 21 February 2002 Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats
85 Amend article 16. 4 January 2002 A technical amendment to protect Consequential seniority in case of promotions of SC/ST Employees
86 Amend articles 45 and 51A.
Insert article 21A.
12 December 2002 Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six
87 Amend articles 81, 82, 170 and 330. 22 June 2003 Extend the usage of 2001 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats
88 Amend article 270.
Insert article 268A.
Amend schedule 7.
15 January 2004 To extend statutory cover for levy and utilization of Service Tax
89 Amend article 338.
Insert article 338A.
28 September 2003 The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
90 Amend article 332. 28 September 2003 Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area
91 Amend articles 75 and 164.
Insert article 361B.
Amend schedule 10.
1 January 2004 Restrict the size of council of ministers to 15% of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws
92 Amend schedule 8. 7 January 2004 Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Maithali as official languages
93 Amend article 15. 20 January 2006 To enable provision of reservation(27%) for other backward classes (O.B.C.) in government as well as private educational institutions
94 Amend article 164. 12 June 2006 To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States including Madhya Pradesh, Orissa.
95 Amend article 334. 25 January 2010 To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Sixty years to Seventy years
96 Amend schedule 8. 23 September 2011 Substituted “Odia” for “Oriya”
97 Amend Art 19 and added Part IXB. 12 January 2012 Added the words “or co-operative societies” after the word “or unions” in Article 19(l)(c) and insertion of article 43B i.e., Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e., The Co-operative Societies.

The amendment objective is to encourage economic activities of cooperatives which in turn help progress of rural India. It is expected to not only ensure autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives, but also the accountability of the management to the members and other stakeholders.

98 To insert Article 371J in the Constitution 2 January 2013 To empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka Region.
99 Insertion of new articles 124A, 124B and 124C. Amendments to Articles 127, 128, 217, 222, 224A, 231. 13 April 2015 The amendment provides for the formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission. 16 State assemblies out of 29 States including Goa, Rajasthan, Tripura, Gujarat and Telangana ratified the Central Legislation, enabling the President of India to give assent to the bill.
100 Amendment of First Schedule to Constitution TBA Acquisition of certain territories of Bangladesh consequent to the agreement between India and Bangladesh.
101 Addition of articles 246A, 269A, 279A. Deletion of Article 268A.

Amendment of articles 248, 249, 250, 268, 269, 270, 271, 286, 366, 368, Sixth Schedule, Seventh Schedule.

1 July 2017 Introduced the Goods and Services Tax.

EVOLUTION OF STATES IN INDIA

The Government accepted the recommendations of the first SRC with a few changes and enacted the States Reorganisation Act 1956 to implement the recommendations. Thus the following 14 States and 6 Union Territories were created through the Act which came into force in November 1956.

States

  1. Andhra Pradesh: Andhra State was merged with the Telugu-speaking area of Hyderabad state (also known as Telangana) to create Andhra Pradesh in 1956.
  2. Assam: No change of boundary in 1956.
  3. Bihar: reduced slightly by the transfer of minor territories to West Bengal.
  4. Bombay State: the state was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra and Kutch, the Marathi- speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi speaking Marathwada region of Hyderabad. The state’s southernmost districts of Bombay were transferred to Mysore State. (In 1960, Bombay State was split into Maharashtra and Gujarat.)
  5. Jammu and Kashmir: No change of boundary in 1956.
  6. Kerala: formed by the merger of Travancore-Cochin state with the Malabar district of Madras

State, Kasaragod of South Canara (Dakshina Kannada). The southern part of Travancore- Cochin, Kanyakumari district was transferred to Madras State.

  1. Madhya Pradesh: Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal State were merged into Madhya Pradesh; the Marathi-speaking districts ofNagpurDivisionwere transferred to Bombay State.
  2. Madras State: Malabar District was transferred to the new state of Kerala, and a new union territory,Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands, was created. The southern part of Travancore-Cochin (Kanyakumari district) was added to the state. (The state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968.)
  3. Mysore State: enlarged by the addition of Coorg State and the Kannada speaking districts from southern Bombay state and westernHyderabad state. (The state was renamed Karnataka in 1973.)

10.Orissa: No change of boundary in 1956.

11.Punjab: enlarged by addition of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union.

12.Rajasthan: enlarged by the addition of Ajmer state and parts of Bombay and Madhya Bharat

states.
13.Uttar Pradesh: No change of boundary in 1956

14.West Bengal: enlarged by addition of minor territory previously forming part of Bihar.

15th State 1960 Gujarat The State of Bombay was divided into – Maharashtra and Gujarat
Union Territory 1961 Dadar and Nagar Haveli The former Portuguese territories, acquired by India in 1954, converted into UT by the 10th Constitutional Amendment Act 1961.
Union Territory 1962 Goa, Daman and Diu The former Portuguese territories, acquired by India in 1961, converted into UT by the 12th Constitutional Amendment Act 1961.
Union Territory 1962 Puducherry Former French colonies – Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yamuna – together known as the Territory of Puducherry, acquired by India in 1954, converted into UT by the 14th Constitutional Amendment Act 1962.
16th State 1963 Nagaland The state of Nagaland was formed by taking the Naga Hills and Tuensang area out of the state of Assam
17th State 1966 Haryana The state of Punjab was bifurcated to create the state of Haryana
Union Territory 1966 Chandigarh Along with the creation of the state of Haryana, Chandigarh was converted into UT
18th State 1971 Himachal Pradesh The Union Territory of Himachal Pradesh was converted into a state
19th State 1972 Manipur The Union Territory of Manipur was converted into a state
20th State 1972 Tripura The Union Territory of Tripura was converted into a state
21st State 1972 Meghalaya Meghalaya, which was established as a sub-state by the 22nd Constitutional Amendment Act 1969, was converted into a state
Union Territory 1972 Arunachal Pradesh Along with the creation of the states of Manipur, Tripura and Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh (within the state of Assam) was converted into UT
Union Territory 1972 Mizoram Along with the creation of the states of Manipur, Tripura and Meghalaya, Mizoram (within the state of Assam) was converted into UT
22nd State 1975 Sikkim Sikkim initially accorded the status of an associate state by the 34th Constitutional Amendment Act 1974 which added Article 2A to the Constitution was accorded the status of a full fledges state by the 35th Constitutional Amendment Act 1975
23rd State 1987 Mizoram The Union Territory of Mizoram was accorded a full-fledged status
24th State 1987 Arunachal Pradesh The Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh was accorded a full-fledged status
25th State 1987 Goa The Union Territory of Goa was accorded a full-fledged status
26th State 2000 Chhattisgarh The state of Madhya Pradesh was divided to create the state of Chhattisgarh
27th State 2000 Uttarakhand The state of Uttar Pradesh was divided to create the state of Uttarakhand
28th State 2000 Jharkhand The state of Bihar was divided to create the state of Jharkhand
29th State 2014 Telangana The state of Andhra Pradesh was divided to create the state of Telangana

 

 

 

UNION AND ITS TERRITORIES

The following table lists the changes in the names of the states.

Former Name Renamed As Year
United Provinces Uttar Pradesh 1950
Madras Tamil Nadu 1969
Mysore Karnataka 1973
Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands Lakshadweep 1973
Union Territory of Delhi National Capital Territory of Delhi 1992
Uttaranchal Uttarakhand 2006
Pondicherry Puducherry 2006
Orissa Odisha 2011

 

 

FACTS RELATED TO POLITY

 

LIST OF PRESIDENTS OF INDIA

S.NO. NAME PERIOD CONTESTED AGAINST REMARKS
1. Rajendra Prasad 26-Jan-1950  to

13-May-1962

K.T. Shah (1st Term)

Chowdhry Hari Ram (2nd Term)

Nagendra Narayan Das (2nd Term)

He was the first President of independent India.

He was the only president to serve two terms in office.

2. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 13-May-1962to

13-May-1967

Chowdhry Hari Ram Vice President to become President
3. Zakir Hussain

 

 

13-May-1967 to

3-May-1969

 

Koka Subbarao

 

 

 

 

Vice President to become President. He died during his term in office.
Varahagiri Venkata Giri

 

3-May-1969  to

20-Jul-1969

 

NA Vice President to become President.
Muhammad Hidayatullah 20-Jul-1969  to

24-Aug-1969

NA Hidayatullah served as the Chief Justice of India
4. Varahagiri Venkata Giri 24-Aug-1969  to

24-Aug-1974

Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy Giri is the only person to have served as both an acting president and president of India.
5. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed 24-Aug-1974  to

11-Feb-1977

Tridib Chaudhuri Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed served as a Minister before being elected as president. He died in 1977 before his term of office ended, and was the second Indian president to die in office
6. BasappaDanappaJatti 11-Feb-1977  to

25-Jul-1977

NA Jatti was the vice president of India during Ahmed’s term of office, and was sworn in as Acting President of India upon Ahmed’s death.
7. Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy 25-Jul-1977  to

25-Jul-1982

Unanimously Elected N.S. Reddy was the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh State.
8. GianiZail Singh 25-Jul-1982  to

25-Jul-1987

H.R.Khanna In March 1972, Singh assumed the position of chief Minister of Punjab, and in 1980, he became Union Home Minister
9. Ramaswamy Venkataraman 25-Jul-1987  to

25-Jul-1992

V. R. Krishna Iyer Served as Minister of Finance and Industry and later as Minister of Defence
10. Shankar Dayal Sharma 25-Jul-1992  to

25-Jul-1997

G.G.Swell Sharma was Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh, and the Indian Minister for Communications. He has also served as the governor of Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Maharashtra
11. Kocheril Raman Narayanan 25-Jul-1997  to

25-Jul-2002

T.N.Seshan Narayanan served as India’s ambassador to Thailand, Turkey, China and United States of America.
12. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam 25-Jul-2002  to

25-Jul-2007

Lakshmi Sahgal Kalam is a scientist who played a leading role in the development of India’s ballistic missile and nuclear weapons programs
13. Pratibha Patil 25-Jul-2007  to

25-Jul-2012

Bhairon Singh Shekhawat Patil is the first woman to become the President of India. She was also the first female Governor of Rajasthan
14. Pranab Mukherjee 25-Jul-2012 to

Till Date

P. A. Sangma Shri Pranab Mukherjee held various posts in the cabinet ministry for the Government of India such as Finance Minister, Foreign Minister, Defence Minister and Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission
15. Ram Nath Kovind 25th July 2017 – Present Meira Kumar H Served as the Governor of Bihar from 2015-2017.

 

LIST OF VICE-PRESIDENTS OF INDIA

S.No. Name Period Then President
1 Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 13-May-52 to

12-May-62

Dr. Rajendra Prasad
2 Dr. Zakir Hussain 13-May-62 to

12-May-67

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
3 Sh. Varahagiri Venkata Giri 13-May-67 to

3-May-69

Dr. Zakir Hussain
4 Gopal Swarup Pathak 31-Aug-69 to

30-Aug-74

Sh. Varahagiri Venkata Giri
5 BasappaDanappaJatti 31-Aug-74 to

30-Aug-79

Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
6 Justice Muhammad Hidayatullah 31-Aug-79 to

30-Aug-84

Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
7 Ramaswamy Venkataraman 31-Aug-84 to

24-Jul-87

GianiZail Singh
8 Shankar Dayal Sharma 3-Sep-87 to

24-Jul-92

Ramaswamy Venkataraman
9 Kocheril Raman Narayanan 21-Aug-92 to

24-Jul-97

Shankar Dayal Sharma
10 Krishan Kant 21-Aug-97 to

27-Jul-02

Kocheril Raman Narayanan
11 Bhairon Singh Shekhawat 19-Aug-02 to

21-Jul-07

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
12 Mohammad Hamid Ansari 11-Aug-07 to

Till Date

Pratibha Patil
Pranab Mukherjee
13 M  Venkaiah Naidu Aug 06, 2017 Ram Nath Kovind

 

 

LIST OF PRIME MINISTERS OF INDIA

S.No Name Period Political party
1 Jawahar Lal Nehru 15-Aug-1947 to 27-May-1964 Indian NationalCongress
2 Gulzarilal Nanda 27-May-1964 to 9 June 1964 Indian NationalCongress
3 Lal Bahadur Shastri 09-Jun-1964 to 11-Jan-1966 Indian NationalCongress
4 Gulzarilal Nanda 11-Jan-1966 to 24 January 1966 Indian NationalCongress
5 Indira Gandhi 24-Jan-1966 to 24-Mar-1977 Indian NationalCongress
6 Morarji Desai 24-Mar-1977 to 28-Jul-1979 Janata Party
7 Charan Singh 28-Jul-1979 to 14-Jan-1980 Janata Party
8 Indira Gandhi 14-Jan-1980 to 31-Oct-1984 Indian NationalCongress
9 Rajiv Gandhi 31-Oct-1984 to 02-Dec-1989 Indian National Congress (Indira)
10 Vishwanath Pratap Singh 02-Dec-1989 to 10-Nov-1990 Janata Dal
11 Chandra Shekhar 10-Nov-1990 to 21-Jun-1991 Samajwadi JanataParty
12 P. V. Narasimha Rao 21-Jun-1991 to 16-May-1996 Indian NationalCongress
13 Atal Bihari Vajpayee 16-May-1996 to 01-Jun-1996 BharatiyaJanataParty
14 H. D. Deve Gowda 01-Jun-1996 to 21-Apr-1997 Janata Dal
15 Atal Bihari Vajpayee 19-Mar-1998 to 22-May-2004 BharatiyaJanataParty
16 Dr. Manmohan   Singh 22-May-2004 to 26-May-2014 Indian NationalCongress
17 Narendra Modi 26-May-2014  to Incumbent BharatiyaJanataParty

 

LIST OF SPEAKERS OF LOK SABHA

S.No Lok Sabha First meeting Dissolution Speaker Tenure Party
First Lok Sabha 13 May, 1952 4 April, 1957 Shri Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar 15 May, 1952-27 –

February, 1956

Indian National Congress
Shri M. AnanthasayanamAyyangar 8 March, 1956 –  10 May, 1957 Indian National Congress
Second Lok Sabha 10 May, 1957 31 March, 1962 Shri M. AnanthasayanamAyyangar 11 May, 1957 –  16 April, 1962 Indian National Congress
Third Lok Sabha 16 April, 1962 3 March,  1967 Shri Hukam Singh 17 April, 1962 –  16 March, 1967 Indian National Congress
Fourth Lok Sabha 16 March, 1967 7 December, 1970 Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 17 March, 1967 –  19 July, 1969 Indian National Congress
Shri Gurdial Singh Dhillon 8 August, 1969 –  19 March, 1971 Indian National Congress
Fifth Lok Sabha 19 March, 1971 18 January, 1977 Shri Gurdial Singh Dhillon 22 March, 1971 –  1 December, 1975 Indian National Congress
Shri Bali Ram Bhagat 5 January, 1976 –  25 March, 1977 Indian National Congress
Sixth Lok Sabha 25 March, 1977 22 August, 1979 Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 26 March, 1977 –  13 July, 1977 Janata Party
Shri K. S. Hegde 21 July, 1977 –  21 January, 1980 Janata Party
Seventh Lok Sabha 21 January, 1980 31 December, 1984 Shri Bal Ram Jakhar 22 January, 1980 –  15 January, 1985 Indian National Congress
Eighth Lok Sabha 15 January, 1985 27 November, 1989 Shri Bal Ram Jakhar, 16 January, 1985 –  18 December, 1989 Indian National Congress
Ninth Lok Sabha 18 December, 1989 13 March, 1991 Shri Ravi Ray 19 December, 1989 –  9 July, 1991 Janata Party
Tenth Lok Sabha 9 July, 1991 10 May, 1996 Shri Shivraj V. Patil 10 July, 1991 –  22 May, 1996 Indian National Congress
Eleventh Lok Sabha 22 May, 1996 4 Dec., 1997 Shri P. A. Sangma 23 May, 1996 –  23 March, 1998 (FN) Indian National Congress
Twelfth Lok Sabha 23 March, 1998, 26 April, 1999 Shri G. M. C. Balayogi 24 March, 1998 –  20 October, 1999 (FN) Telugu Desam Party
Thirteenth Lok Sabha 20 October, 1999 6 February, 2004 Shri G. M. C. Balayogi 22 October, 1999 –  3 March, 2002 Telugu Desam Party
Shri Manohar Joshi 10 May, 2002 –  4 June, 2004 Shiv Sena
Fourteenth Lok Sabha 2 June, 2004 18 May, 2009 Shri Somnath Chatterjee 4 June, 2004 –  30 May 2009 Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Fifteen Lok Sabha 1 July, 2009 4 June 2014 Meera Kumar 30 May 2009–4 June 2014 Indian National Congress
Sixteenth Lok Sabha 5 June 2014 ————– Sumitra Mahajan 5 June 2014-Present Bharatiya Janata Party

 

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