The News Editorial Analysis 27 September 2021

The News Editorial Analysis 27 September 2021

Indian Agriculture related.

What’s the matter?

  • We have completed 5 years for the Indian PM announcement of achieving an ambitious target of doubling farmer’s incomes by 2022-23.
  • To achieve the target of doubling farmer’s income in real terms, the Ashok Dalwai committee has chalked out a strategy.
  • To achieve this, a growth rate of 10.4% per annum is required.

The farmer income & growth numbers during this period:

  • We don’t have the latest data on farmer’s income.
  • 2015-16, NABARD data shows that the farmer’s income is Rs. 8931 in 2015-16.
  • However, we do have the recently released 2018-19 Situation Assessment Data of agriculture households by NSO.
  • It shows that average agricultural households earned a monthly income of Rs 10,218 in 2018-19 in nominal terms,
  • Which is a 8% CAGR when compared to the 2012-13 period.
  • At the same time, based on these nominal numbers, the projected real income growth rate is around 3-4%.
  • Further, the Average Annual Growth Rates data too reaffirms that the agri-GDP for the period of 2002-03 to 2018-19 is 3.3%.
  • However, at the state level, the variation is much more as state-GDP growth is volatile & heavily depends on the monsoon.
  • There is a huge gap between agri-GDP & farmer’s income growth in many states.

The underlining points from the above-disaggregated numbers:

  • The share of income from rearing animals has gone dramatically from 4.3% to 15.7%.
  • The share of the income from the cultivation of crops has decreased from 45.5% to 37.7%.
  • The share of wages & salaries has gone up from 38.7% to 40.3%.
  • The share of income coming from non-farm business has come down from 11.2% to 6.4%.

The concluding message from the authors:

In the coming days, the scope for augmenting farmers’ incomes is going to be more & from animal husbandry. The policy that believes that the MSP system will be the way for doubling farmers’ income is going to be failed. The best way to invest is to incentivize the private sector to build efficient value chains based on a cluster approach. 


Based on the recommendations of the Ashok Dalwai committee, The Prime Minister has announced the government’s goal of doubling the farmer’s income by 2022.

Rationale behind this:

  • Agriculture supports the sustenance of more than half of India’s total population. Doubling farmers’ incomes in such a short period is an overwhelming task for decision-makers, scientists, and political makers due to their continuous role in employment, income, and, above all, in national food safety.
  • Doubling the farmers’ income is possible through the increase in total production and the best realization of market prices, reducing production costs, product diversification, post-harvest efficient management, etc.

Why Doubling Farmers Income?

  • Past strategy for the development of the agriculture sector in India has focused primarily on raising agricultural output and improving food security.
  • The net result has been a 45% increase in per person food production, which has made India not only food self-sufficient at the aggregate level, but also a net food exporting country.
  • The strategy did not explicitly recognize the need to raise farmers’ income and did not mention any direct measure to promote farmer’s welfare.
  • The net result has been that farmer’s income remained low, which is evident from the incidence of poverty among farm households.
  • Low level of absolute income, as well as large and deteriorating disparity between income of a farmer and non-agricultural worker, constitute an important reason for the emergence of agrarian distress in the country during the 1990s, which turned quite serious in some years.
  • The country also witnessed a sharp increase in the number of farmers suicides during 1995 to 2004 – losses from farming, shocks in farm income, and low farm income are identified as the important factors for this.
  • The low and highly fluctuating farm income is causing a detrimental effect on the interest in farming and farm investments and is also forcing more and more cultivators, particularly younger age groups, to leave farming. This can cause a serious adverse effect on the future of agriculture in the country.
  • It is apparent that income earned by a farmer from agriculture is crucial to address agrarian distress and promote farmer’s welfare.
  • In this background, the goal set to double farmers’ income by 2022-23 is central to promote farmer’s welfare, reduce agrarian distress and bring parity between the income of farmers and those working in non-agricultural professions.

The Roadmap to achieve the Doubling Income:

Doubling real income of farmers till 2022-23 over the base year of 2015-16 requires annual growth of 10.41% in farmers’ income. This implies that the ongoing and previously achieved rate of growth in farm income has to be sharply accelerated. Therefore, strong measures will be needed to harness all possible sources of growth in farmers’ income within as well as outside the agriculture sector.

  • Area-agricultural output has to be increased through access to irrigation and technological advancement.
  • Resource use efficiency or saving in cost of production.
  • Increase in cropping intensity by raising short duration crops after the main Kharif and after the main rabi season so that agricultural land does not remain unused for half of the productive period.
  • Diversification towards high-value crops like fruits & vegetables & other allied enterprises like forestry, dairying rather than depending primarily on crop cultivation.
  • Shifting cultivators from farm to non-farm occupations – Non-farm sectors provide 2-3 times more productive employment than the agriculture sector in rural areas
  • Improvement in terms of trade for farmers or real prices received by farmers- Use of CPIAL (Consumer price index for agricultural labour) as a deflator to change nominal farm income to real farm income.

Steps taken by the Govt:

  • To provide income support to all farmers’ families across the country, to enable them to take care of expenses related to agriculture and allied activities as well as domestic needs, the Central Government started a new Central Sector Scheme, namely, the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN). The scheme aims to provide a payment of Rs. 6000/- per year, in three 4-monthly installments of Rs. 2000/- to the farmer’s families, subject to certain exclusions relating to higher-income groups.
  • Further to provide a social security net for Small and Marginal Farmers (SMF) as they have minimal or no savings to provide for old age and to support them in the event of the consequent loss of livelihood, the Government has decided to implement another new Central Sector Scheme i.e. Pradhan Mantri Kisan MaanDhan Yojana (PM-KMY) for providing old-age pension to these farmers.
  • Under this Scheme, a minimum fixed pension of Rs. 3000/- will be provided to the eligible small and marginal farmers, subject to certain exclusion clauses, on attaining the age of 60 years.
  • To provide better insurance coverage to crops for risk mitigation, a crop insurance scheme namely Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) was launched from Kharif 2016 season.
  • This scheme provides insurance cover for all stages of the crop cycle including post-harvest risks in specified instances, with low premium contribution by farmers.
  • Giving a major boost for the farmer’s income, the Government has approved the increase in the Minimum Support Price (MSPs) for all Kharif & Rabi crops for the 2018-19 season at a level of at least 150 percent of the cost of production.
  • Implementation of flagship scheme of distribution of Soil Health Cards to farmers so that the use of fertilizers can be rationalized.
  • “Per drop more crop” initiative under which drip/sprinkler irrigation is being encouraged for optimal utilization of water, reducing the cost of inputs and increasing productivity.
  • “Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)” for promoting organic farming.
  • Launch of the e-NAM initiative to provide farmers an electronic transparent and competitive online trading platform.
  • Under “Har Medh Par Ped”, agroforestry is being promoted for additional income.  With the amendment of the Indian Forest Act, 1927, Bamboo has been removed from the definition of trees.
  • A restructured National Bamboo Mission has been launched in the year 2018 to promote bamboo plantation on non-forest government as well as private land and emphasis on value addition, product development, and markets.
  • Giving a major boost to the pro-farmer initiatives, the Government has approved a new Umbrella Scheme ‘Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan (PM-AASHA)’. 
  • The Scheme is aimed at ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers for their produce as announced in the Union Budget for 2018.
  • This is an unprecedented step taken by Govt. of India to protect the farmers’ income which is expected to go a long way towards the welfare of farmers.
  • Bee keeping has been promoted under Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) to increase the productivity of crops through pollination and increase honey production as an additional source of income for farmers.
  • To ensure the flow of adequate credit, Government sets an annual target for the flow of credit to the agriculture sector, Banks have been consistently surpassing the annual target.
  • The agriculture credit flow target was set at Rs. 13.50 lakh crore for the F.Y.2019-20 and Rs.15.00 lakh crore for F.Y. 2020-21.
  • Extending the reach of institutional credit to more and more farmers is a priority area of the Government and to achieve this goal, the Government provides interest subvention of 2% on short-term crop loans up to Rs.3.00 lakh. Presently, the loan is available to farmers at an interest rate of 4% per annum on prompt repayment.
  • Further, under Interest Subvention Scheme 2018-19, to provide relief to the farmers on the occurrence of natural calamities, the interest subvention of 2% shall continue to be available to banks for the first year on the restructured amount.
  • To discourage distress sale by farmers and to encourage them to store their produce in warehouses against negotiable receipts, the benefit of interest subvention will be available to small and marginal farmers having Kisan Credit Card for a further period of up to six months post-harvest on the same rate as available to crop loan.
  • The Government has extended the facility of Kisan Credit Card (KCC) to the farmers practicing animal husbandry and fisheries-related activities.
  • All processing fees, inspection, ledger folio charges, and all other services charges have been waived off for the fresh renewal of KCC.
  • Collateral fee loan limit for short-term agri-credit has been raised from Rs.1.00 lakh to Rs.1.60 lakh. KCC will be issued within 14 days from the receipt of a completed application.
  • Several market reforms have been rolled out. These include
  • Model APLMC (Promotion & Facilitation) Act, 2017
  • Establishment of 22,000 number of Gramin Agriculture Markets (GrAMs) as aggregation platforms
  • Agri-Export Policy, that targets to double agri-exports by 2022
  • The Farmers Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion & Facilitation) Act 2020
  • The Farmers (Empowerment & Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020
  • Amendments to Essential Commodities Act, 1955, that deregulates various agri-commodities
  • Promotion of 10,000 FPOs by 2024


  • Creation of Corpus Funds:
    • Micro Irrigation Fund – Rs. 5,000 crore
    • Agri-marketing Fund to strengthen eNAM and GrAMs – Rs. 2,000 crore
    • Agricultural Infrastructure Fund (AIF) to build agri-logistics (backward & forward linkages) – Rs. 1 lakh crore.

Concluding Remarks:

To secure the future of agriculture and to improve the livelihood of half of India’s population, adequate attention needs to be given to improve the welfare of farmers and raise agricultural income. It is essential to mobilize States and UTs to own and achieve the goal of doubling farmers’ income with an active focus on capacity building (technology adoption and awareness) of farmers that will be the catalyst to boost farmer’s income.

Since India is a diverse country where the majority of agriculture is monsoon dependent, therefore, interventions are needed which includes research, technology promotion, extension, post-harvest management, processing, and marketing, in consonance with the comparative advantage of each State/region and its diverse agro-climatic features; and then the Country can indeed achieve the goal of doubling farmers’ income by the year 2022.

How online education can give disabled children greater learning opportunities

Among other things, it becomes possible to access learning from the safety and comfort of their homes, saving them from unnecessary inhibitions in attending physical schools.

Globally, about 15 % of the population lives with some form of disability. Of this, 80% lives in developing countries. Persons with disabilities (PwDs) are among the most marginalized groups. They encounter a range of barriers and are more likely to experience adverse socioeconomic outcomes. Limited support infrastructure can have a significant debilitating impact on everyday life. WHO now considers disability a human rights issue. It emphasizes that people are disabled by society and not by their bodies.

Over the last 65 years, the overall global literacy rate has increased by 4 per cent every five years — from 42 %  in 1960 to 86 %  in 2019. However, the global literacy rate for the disabled is as low as 3 per cent with just 1 per cent for females. Ninety per cent of disabled children in developing countries do not attend school, says UNESCO. The school drop-out rate is also high due to the lack of adequate infrastructure, inaccessible reading material and untrained teachers. An insignificant number make it to institutes of higher learning.

Lack of education has a trickle-down effect. Most disabled children are not equipped with foundational skills for employability. According to the UN, in developing countries, 80% to 90% of PwDs are unemployed, whereas in industrialized countries, it is between 50% to 70%.  In most countries, the unemployment rate for PwDs  is at least twice that of those who have no disability.

The pandemic has made us realise how technology is reshaping education. Lockdowns made schools rapidly migrate to online education. This metamorphosis of education systems has far-reaching implications for disabled children. Online education has the potential to make learning more accessible for PwDs. It takes care of physical barriers created by transportation and mobility issues. Children have the advantage of accessing learning from the safety and comfort of their homes. It saves them from unnecessary inhibitions in attending physical schools. Disabled students in higher education too can have access to lectures, libraries and resources without the need to physically navigate remote campuses.

Online learning, both in the synchronous and asynchronous modes, offers added flexibility and the advantage of self-paced learning. With technological aids and assistive devices, it is possible to train disabled children in various skills. E-learning allows the review of materials and repeated viewing of video lectures. Various assistive technologies like screen readers, text magnifiers, speech recognition software, Braille keyboards, sign language interpreters, videos with subtitles, audio recordings, etc, can be used.

Why China has decided against saving Evergrande

 It is the strongest signal yet that no corporate is ‘too big to fail’ and that there are no states guarantees for them.

In evaluating the 2017 19th Communist Party (CCP) conference, we had stated that it would turn out to be China’s watershed moment (IE, November 3, 2017). While media and market attention was focused on the elimination of the 10-year term limit for Party leadership and the presidency, we viewed the restating of the “principal contradiction” facing China by the CCP as being more important.

India must cooperate with U.S. on vaccines, trade, and leverage Quad for regional stability

In March 2021, the QUAD leaders held first virtual summit in which 3 Working groups were created viz. The Quad Vaccine Partnership, The Quad Climate Change working Group and The Critical and Emerging Technology Working Group. In a recently held 1st ever in-person Quad Summit during the PM Modi’s New York visit in for the UNGA session few steps are taken in continuance to these working groups.

Following on the heels of the first virtual summit of the four leaders in March 2021, this meeting builds upon the intention of the Quad member nations — India, the U.S., Australia, and Japan — to ensure an Indo-Pacific region “free from coercion and disputes… solved in accordance with international law”.

Steps taken during the QUAD meeting -.

  1. Developments after the formation of Quad Critical and Emerging Technology Working Group.

A.Quad Senior Cyber Group, 2021:

For Implementation of shared cyber standards;

  • Development of secure software;
  • Building workforce & Talent;
  • Promoting the scalability and cyber security of secure & trustworthy digital infrastructure.

B. Space Cooperation(2021)begins

  • Sharing of Earth observation satellite data and analysis on climate change risks and the sustainable use of oceans and marine resources.
  • It will help in monitoring & adapting to climate change, disaster preparedness, in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • [Remember  – Some geospatial data is already shared under BECA]   

C. Quad Fellowship: It will bring 100 exceptional Masters & doctoral students(25 from each countries) in STEM to study in the US.

  • It will develop  a network of S&T experts committed to advancing innovation  & collaboration in the private, public, and academic sectors in their own nations and among Quad countries.
  • A first of its kind scholarship program, operated and administered by philanthropic initiative  & in consultation with a non-governmental task force comprised of leaders from each Quad country.

D. Technical Standards Contact Groups: The Quad will establish contact groups on Advanced Communications and AI focusing on standards-development activities as well as foundational pre-standardization research.

E. Semiconductor Supply Chain Initiative:to map capacity, identify vulnerabilities, and bolster supply-chain security for semiconductors and their vital components.

  • It will help ensure Quad partners support a diverse and competitive market that produces the secure critical technologies essential for digital economies globally.

F. Support 5G Deployment and Diversification:

  • a Track 1.5 industry dialogue on Open RAN deployment and adoption, coordinated by the Open RAN Policy Coalition.
  • Quad partners will jointly facilitate enabling environments for 5G diversification, including with efforts related to testing and test facilities.

G. Monitor Biotechnology Scanning: The Quad will monitor trends in critical and emerging technologies, starting with advanced biotechnologies, including synthetic biology, genome sequencing, and bio-manufacturing. In the process, we will identify related opportunities for cooperation.

2. Developments after The Quad Climate Working Group:

  1. Green shipping Network: The Quad countries will launch a Quad Shipping Taskforce and will invite leading ports including Los Angeles, Mumbai Port Trust, Sydney(Botany) and Yokahama, to form a network dedicated to greening ad decarbonizing the shipping value chain.
  2. Clean Hydrogen Partnership: identification and development of delivery infrastructure to safely and efficiently transport, store, and distribute clean hydrogen for end-use applications, and stimulating market demand to accelerate trade in clean hydrogen in the Indo-Pacific region.
  3. Quad-Low emission shipping corridors: 2-3 such corridors would be developed by 2030.
    • Developments after ‘The Quad Vaccine Partnership: Pledge to donate 1.2bn vaccine dozes globally in addition to doses financed through the COVAX initiative.
      • . India:
        • Production at Biological E Ltd.(Hyderabad) – It will produce 1 bn doses of COVID-19 vaccines by 2022.
        • India resumed the supply of vaccines to the COVAX initiative.
  1. Japan: $3.3 bn provided through COVID-19 Crisis Response Emergency Support Loan program, Japan.
  2. Australia: to provide $212Mn in grant aid to purchase vaccines for south Asia & the Pacific and $219Mn to support last-mile vaccine rollout. 

Apart from this an infrastructure coordination group is launched:

  • 2021 – Quad Infrastructure coordination group: for Meeting the significant infrastructure demand in the Indo-Pacific.
    • Significance: A response to Chinese BRI.
    • Lead on High end infrastructure: This represents thousands of projects, including capacity-building, across more than 30 countries in support of rural development, health infrastructure, water supply and sanitation, renewable power generation (e.g., wind, solar, and hydro), telecommunications, road transportation, and more.

Significance of the Meeting: 

  • Importance for Indian economy: It seeks to revive India’s economy and its strategic role in the aftermath of the COVID-19 crisis.
  • Revival of Vaccine Alliance:The US received Mr. Modi’s assurance that as the world’s largest vaccine manufacturer, India would resume supplies to the global COVAX pool under its ‘Vaccine Maitri’ programme. In the early months of 2021 India halted its export due to  the 2nd wave and around the same time the U.S. also invoked its Defense Production Act, effectively preventing the export of raw materials for vaccine manufacture in a bid to prioritise domestic production.
  • Newer Vision for Quad: Long-pending conversations on trade, defence ties and more.
  • Strengthening the Alliance: Reaffirmation by Mr. Biden that India remained a ‘Major Defence Partner’, making it a key nation with which Washington could share information and strengthen cooperation in advanced military technologies, including, for example, a recent project to co-develop air-launched unmanned aerial vehicles.
  • ‘A force for Global Good’ – PM Modi: Issues of global concern, including the ongoing pandemic, climate change, technology cooperation, supply chains and security, and preserving a free and open Indo-Pacific were themes that came up at the Quad gathering.
  • Peace in Indo-Pacific: It intends to ensure an Indo-Pacific region “free from coercion and disputes… solved in accordance with international law”. Further, while India has sought to disassociate its role as a member of the Quad from the recently announced Australia-U.K.-U.S. (AUKUS) partnership, there is little doubt that the creation of a fleet of nuclear-powered submarines for Australia under the AUKUS framework will have significant and positive implications on India’s strategic calculus regarding the Indo-Pacific region.

Conclusion: This is a time for India to rapidly deepen cooperative initiatives with the U.S. regarding vaccines and trade and continue engaging vigorously with the Quad for regional stability. That is the optimal strategy to navigate the uncertain global ecosystem that it now finds itself in.

Going digital for better health solutions: Centre; PM Digital Health Mission will be rolled out today.

PM Modi to launch nation-wide Digital Health Mission on Sept 27

The PM Digital Health Mission will create a nationwide digital health infrastructure to provide universal health coverage with health IDs for for all citizens.

Straight after getting back from his US visit, Prime Minister Narendra Modi is all set to announce the nationwide rollout of Pradhan Mantri Digital Health Mission on September 27.

According to the Union Health Minister Manukh Mandaviya, ‘digi Health mission’, the Centre’s flagship scheme looks to digitalize healthcare across the nation creating a country-wide digital health ecosystem that will enable patients to store, access and consent to share their health records with doctors and health facilities of their choice.

The PMDHM will create a nationwide digital health infrastructure to provide universal health coverage with health IDs for for all citizens, Unique Identifiers for doctors and health facilities, Personal Health Records, and telemedicine and e-pharmacy, among other components.

Delhi Metro earned ₹19.5 crore from the sale of carbon credits; Over 3 million such credits collected from 2012-2018


The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) has earned a commendable ? 19.5 crores from the sale of 3.55 million carbon credits which it had collected over a period of six years from 2012 to 2018. DMRC has been a pioneer in India in quantifying climate change benefits from its operations. It has a number of dedicated projects to its credit oriented towards energy efficiency.

In 2007, Delhi Metro became the first Metro or Railway project in the world to be registered by the United Nations under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which enabled Delhi Metro to claim carbon credits for its Regenerative Braking Project.The CDM is a project-based Green House Gas (GHG) offset mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol allowing the public and private sector in high-income nations the opportunity to purchase carbon credits from greenhouse gas emissions-reducing projects in low or middle-income nations as part of their efforts to meet international emissions targets under the Kyoto protocol.

CDM projects generate emissions credits called Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), which are then bought and traded. One CER is equal to one ton of CO2(eq) emission reduced. The CDM helps to deliver sustainable development benefits to the host country. The CDM projects are managed by The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an entity established to combat “dangerous human interference with the climate system”. The first CDM project of Delhi Metro was based on the regenerative braking technology. Carbon credits generated from this project till 2012 were sold for ?

 9.55 Cr.

The 2nd CDM project is based on the principle of Modal Shift. The essence of this project is that the carbon footprint of people travelling by metro is much lesser than that of the same journeys performed by other modes of transport. Delhi Metro has so far registered four projects viz Regenerative Braking project, Modal Shift project, MRTS PoA project and Solar project with UNFCCC, all of which are the first of their kind in the world. Apart from this, in 2014, Delhi Metro also became the first ever Metro and Railway system in the world to be registered with the prestigious ‘Gold Standard Foundation’, Switzerland, which is also a globally accepted certification standard for carbon mitigation projects. So far DMRC has registered four projects with the Gold Standard Foundation.

Since 2015, Delhi Metro has also been providing CDM consultancy services to other Metro systems in India, enabling them to earn carbon credits from their project. Already Gujarat Metro, Mumbai Metro and Chennai Metro etc. have registered their projects under the Delhi Metro’s Program of Activities (PoA) project enabling them to earn carbon credits and contribute to India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) in compliance with the Paris Agreement. For the period 2012-18, combined GHG emission reduction achieved from all the above mentioned CDM and Gold Standard projects was 3.55 million carbon credits. The sale of carbon credits accrued from CDM and Gold Standard projects in the period 2012-18 has generated revenue of INR 19.5 Cr to DMRC. Thus, total revenue generation from CDM and Gold Standard projects since inception has been INR 29.05 Cr.

 There has been a higher demand for carbon credits due to global factors such as the implementation of the Paris Agreement etc. Utilizing this opportunity, DMRC has been able to sell all its 3.55 million credits accrued during the period 2012-18 to international buyers by signing the Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement (ERPA) for transfer of credits with M/s. South Pole, Switzerland, M/s. Summit Energy Services, USA and M/s. EVI International, Singapore.  

Rajasthan BSTC Result 2021: When and where to check score.

The candidates who have cleared the exam and registered for counseling can check their allotment list at the official website, The candidates who will qualify the exam are advised to register for the counseling on the official website.

Rajasthan BSTC Pre DElEd result 2021: 

The results for the Rajasthan Basic School Teaching Course (Rajasthan BSTC) will be released today i.e. September 27 at 1 pm. Candidates who appeared in the exam will be able to view the result on the official website —

The candidates who will qualify the exam are advised to register for the counselling on the official website. The document verification of the candidate will also be done during the counseling

The counseling process for Rajasthan BSTC includes registration, payment of counseling fees, choice filling, seat allotment, deposit allotment fee and finally reporting at the allotted college.

During the counseling sessions, candidates will have to select the college they wish to appear for. Based on choice and merit, the college will be allotted thereafter document verification will be held. To book a seat, candidates will have to pay a fee, else the seat will be offered in the next counseling round. The exact schedule will be released once the result is declared.

To pass the exam, candidates will have to obtain at least 50 per cent marks. For candidates belonging to the reserved category, the minimum cut-off is 45 per cent. Based on marks obtained by candidates, a merit list will be released. Candidates will be called for counseling based on their merit.

The News Editorial Analysis 27 September 2021

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